Pest infestation leads to yellowing of the leaves. Mycelial growth in the form of white, peach or buff colored cushions can be seen on the surface of rhizomes [93]. It affects roots and rhizome severely. Mycotaxon 46: 329-333. Among the 11 species, P. myriotylum and P. aphanidermatum cause severe damage in warm climates. Among six Streptomyces species, SSC-MB-02 was effective against F. oxysporum [115]. Infected plants exhibits stunting, reduced vigor and tillering. So far fungicides like Bavistin 50WP, Ridomil Gold MZ-72, Captan, Dithane M-45, copper oxychloride and Bordeaux mixture are found to be effective against the disease [110, 111]. Bacillus subtilis strain 1JN2, Myroides odoratimimus 3YW8, B. amyloliquefaciens 5YN8, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 2JW6 are used as biocontrol showed efficacies greater than 50% against bacterial wilt of ginger [29]. R. solanacearum is a soil-borne disease spreads from the soil by adhering to hands, boots, tools, vehicle tires and field equipment; through water during irrigation and rainfall; and through infected ginger rhizomes [23]. Preventing Ginger Plant Diseases. The presence of a bore hole on the pseudo stem through which frass is extruded and withered and yellow central shoot is a characteristic symptom of pest infestation. Yu et al. Dark brown necrotic lesion is observed in nematode infected rhizomes. Excessive liming or abundant coral sand in the soil may cause yellowing of the blades and poor growth. Infected seed pieces and soil are source of primary inoculum. It is wide spread and prevailed in warm and humid environmental conditions. Chinese rose beetles are repelled by bright light and so shining the plants with bright light deter them from feeding; covering young plants with e.g. Annually, India produces 385.33 thousand tons of ginger [1]. In early stages, the middle portion of the leaves remain green while the margins become yellow. Among the various nanoparticles synthesized from plants, a sulfur nanoparticle has high inhibitory effect on F. oxysporum [118]. China, India, Nepal and Thailand are the major producers of ginger in the world. The lesions are usually observed on the leaf sheaths although leaf blades may also be affected. In badly affected cases, the white spots … By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Available from: Physical Methods for Stimulation of Plant and Mushroom Development, Department of Vegetable Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, India, Department of Plant Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, India. Younger sprouts are the most susceptible to the pathogen. Soil drenching with Zineb, captafol, methyl bromide, mercuric chloride, thiram, phenyl mercury acetate, copper oxide and mancozeb protect the ginger crop from soft rot disease [52]. Biocontrol agents like Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pasteuria penetrans and Pseudomonas fluorescens are effective against M. incognita. Phytosanitation is needed when the symptoms of soft rot appear in the ginger plantations. The production of ginger is being affected by biotic and abiotic factors. Similarly, T. harzianum and T. saturnisporum also showed strong antagonism against P. splendens [59]. Dipping the rhizomes in the Allium sativum extract or immersing in a suspension of P. fluorescens and T. harzianum (0.5% for 30 min) before storage, reduce disease incidence [151]. [80] identified Supraba and Himachal Pradesh cultivars showing less than 3% soft rot incidence. The larvae apparently feed on decaying plant material; pupation occurs in the soil. The chapter will elaborately discuss diseases caused by oomycetes and true fungi, such as soft rot caused by Pythium spp. Talc-based formulations with rhizobacteria strain XXBC-TN (Bacillus subtilis) and a mixture of S2BC-1 (B. subtilis) and TEPF-Sungal (Burkholderia cepacia), inhibit F. oxysporum and F. solani. Sprouts, roots, developing rhizome and collar region of the pseudo stem are highly prone to infection. Leaf roller Leaf roller can be controlled by spraying Carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/ha or Quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit. Genetic variation of F. oxysporum f.sp. Rev. The collar region of the pseudo-stem shows pale translucent brown colour which becomes water soaked, due to destruction of parenchymatus tissues. were the best mulches with respect to inhibit soft rot caused by P. aphanidermatum. Nematode feeds rhizomes, roots and base of the pseudo stems. It can be readily purified from the virus ginger leaves through ultracentrifugation with a sedimentation coefficient of 111 s. The purified virus is an isometric nature with size of 28–33 nm. [141], Cladosporium tenuissimum, Gliocladium roseum Bainer, Graphium album (Corda) Sacc., Mucor racemosus Fresen., Stachybotrys sansevieriae, Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) donk and Verticillium chlamydosporium Goddard [142]. It is an important to have a multiple approach. It feeds the base of the pseudo stem, roots and newly formed rhizomes. Nematode infestation aggravates rhizome rot disease. The sections closer to the surface are generally healthy. Licensee IntechOpen. Gray showed 100% resistance against F. solani [117]. It is an olive green caterpillar with a distinct black head. Kumar and Sarma [10] have characterized the isolates of R. solanacearum on the basis of their membrane protein pattern on SDS PAGE and serological detection (NCM-ELISA) using R. solanacearum specific antibodies. Storing the rhizomes in lower temperature avoid weight loss, increase the sprouting but with higher risk of infection when comparing with storage at room temperature. Roots and rhizomes exhibit galling and rotting. IN 1938 and succeeding years a leaf spot disease has been reported on ginger from Godavari and Malabar districts. Yellows disease and leaf spot disease are also the serious problems of gingers, because they have become more widely spread and caused enormous loss of ginger yield , . 2) Sprouted rhizomes are broken into pieces keeping 2-3 sprouted eye buds on each rhizome. In: Raychaudhary S P & Verma J P (Eds.). Harvey and Lawrence [72] believed that crop rotations reduce Pythium spp. GCFV is mechanically transmitted only to ginger but not like ginger mosaic virus, transmitted by Myzus persicae, Pentalonia nigronervosa and Rhopalosiphum maidis or R. padi. Senapati et al. The available physical, chemical, biological, methods and cultural practices to manage this pathogen are discussed below. In India, fungal diseases reduce the potential yield to a greater extent in field, storage and market and may cause losses of even more than 50% [32]. Disease is soil-borne; Noticed on the leaves from July to October; high humidity and temperature. Symptoms : It is the most serious disease and the symptoms can be noticed form July-August. The disease is common in the months of August, September and October. Planting the disease free rhizomes is the best method to manage the disease [71]. It is seed and soil borne disease carried by two ways: (1) Through diseased rhizomes scales [40] and (2) through soil as oospores. Phyllosticta leaf spot. The adults are 7–9 mm long and more prevalent at higher elevations, apparently requiring cooler temperatures for survival. Bacterial disease signs (difficult to observe, but can include): Bacterial ooze Application of Boerhavia diffusa leaves and seed powder of Azadirachta indica in the soil before the planting reduces the infection [63]. On standard media, the fungus forms pycnidia having 100–270 μm diameter bearing hyaline, unicellular, oblong, big guttulate spores measuring 3.7–7.4 × 1.2–2.5 μm [125]. Two haplotypes showed very little genetic variation (98.6% similarity), whereas the third haplotype was quite distinct in terms of its molecular profile (77.2% similarity). Applications of bioagents such as T. harzianum, P. fluorescens and B. subtilis together reduce the disease than individually on the rhizomes (8.64%) as well as on tillers (12.50%) [87]. populations with lower disease incidence [86]. Ginger can have the bacteria either from the infected seed, or from direct inoculation, through wounds or natural openings. Erwinia chrysanthemi is the only Erwinia species responsible soft-rot of ginger. As the name suggests, the disease causes water-soaked spots on leaves. as well as improve the yield of ginger [89]. Sometime, the eggs laid on the decaying flower stalk, develop into larva, reaches the rhizome and reduce the quality of rhizome [160]. Four biotypes of R. solanacearum have been identified so far. Symptoms appear first on younger leaves. The grubs are creamy white and live in soil. Crop rotation with taro and cassava, applying large qualities of poultry manure, dipping seed in hot water at 51°C for 10 min before sowing, reduce the infection of Radopholus similis. Initially, disease appear as light yellowing of the tips of lower leaves which gradually spreads down to the leaf blade and leaf sheath along the margin. The virus infected ginger possesses spherical particles with a diameter of 23–38 nm. It is considered as the second most important destructive bacterial pathogens identified to date. Sharma N. D. and Joshi L. K. (1976) Three new storage diseases of ginger (Zingiber officinale (L.) Rosc.). Treating the rhizome with aureofungin (0.02%) and Benomyl (0.2%) before the Storage, control the disease [148]. The purified virus particle showed positive to serological reaction for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) antiserum. It differs from mosaic virus in particle properties, host range and serology. The fungus also produces resting structures (Chlamydospores) in the decomposing tissues of infected rhizomes. The bacteria enter the plant through wounds made in the roots during transplanting, through agricultural equipment’s, nematodes and insects. Leaf Spot of Ginger. On the young leaves, small spindle to oval to elongated spots size of 1–10 mm × 0.5–4 mm appears. [77] reported that neem seed cake with least average mortality (20.3%) followed by poultry manure (22.7). Among different species of Fusarium, F. oxysporum causes decaying of ginger rhizomes [36]. Increased protection is due to increase in defense enzymes such as chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and polyphenol oxidase and promote plant growth and rhizome [67]. zingiberi isolates with DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) segregated the isolates into three haplotypes based on 17 polymorphic bands generated with five primers [100]. Reduction of soft rot occurred when seed was first disinfested with HOCl (1%) followed by soaking in Trichoderma spp. It causes extensive damage to cortical tissues of root. Select healthy and disease-free seed rhizomes. The virus is transmitted through the sap to different plants which are believed to the hosts of CMV [4]. zoospores germination and spreading. Similarly, dipping in garlic extract (20% w/v for 30 min) also reduces the disease incidence [152]. Among the various diseases, soft rot, yellows, Phyllosticta leaf spot, storage rot, bacterial wilt, mosaic, and chlorotic fleck are important. India is considered as a ‘magical land of spices’ with diverse variety of spices. Severely, various pathogenic diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal, and nematode origin reduce its potential yields drastically. Therefore, tissues from infected crops remaining in the field serve as a reservoir of the fungus. is soil borne pathogen survive in the soil for a long period [46]. Kumar et al. Exposing ginger seed pieces to hot air at 75% RH until their temperatures attained 49°C for 30 and 60 min and 50°C for 30 min, resulted in minimal injury to the hosts. The disease starts as water soaked spot and later turns as a white spot surrounded by dark brown margins and yellow halo. diffusa (L.) Hook. During the rainfall, the dispersal of spore occurred. [159]). Several species of Pratylenchus namely P. brachyurus, P. coffeae, P. indicus and P. zeae are infecting ginger. Reduction of leaf spot and sun burn on leaves occurred while growing plants under shade have increased the number of tillers per clump recommends the growing of ginger in partial shade to avoid the fungicidal spray [107]. Further discussion will be on dry rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Crop rotation with groundnut-mustard was effective in reducing the population of M. incognita. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is earliest known oriental spices, belonging to the family, Zingiberaceae. The beds must be drenched with 1% Bordeaux mixture or 0.2% copper oxychloride the moment the disease is noticed. This pest is prevalent in the field at low elevations [160]. Abiotic factor causes sunburn (due to high light intensity) and lime-induced chlorosis (due to excessive liming in soil) in the ginger crop. Bacteria secrete pectolytic enzymes degrade and break the cells providing more food for the bacteria. The incidence of the disease is severe in ginger grown under exposed conditions. Highest reduction of the incidence of disease is observed with spraying chlorothalonil [127]. is the best biocontrol agents for soft rot. It was first described by Simmonds [90] from Queensland. To avoid winter burn plant in a site protected from wind and sun. Biotype III is restricted to ginger plant and its weeds whereas biotype IV infects a wide host range including potato, tomato, eggplant, Capsicum frutescens, Zinnia elegans and Physalis peruviana. Plant Disease is the leading international journal for rapid reporting of research on new, emerging, and established plant diseases. (2013b) studied genetic variability of 32 Fusarium isolates from diseased ginger rhizomes from Western Himalayas in India. rustica, N. glutinosa, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, and C. aromatica. [39] developed PCR-RFLP based detection of isolates of Pythium by studying the genetic variation between P. myriotylum. Growth of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) was completely inhibited when it amended with onion and garlic extracts at 5 and 7.5% (v/v), respectively [61]. Due to this, crop is severely affected without destroying the rhizomes. Please leave all source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws. Indrasenan and Paily [79] identified Maran cultivar resistant against P. aphanidermatum. Leaving the land fallow for 2 consecutive years reduce the pest population. Treating rhizomes with Ridomil MZ (metalaxyl and mancozeb) and soil drenching with Thimet (Phorate) and Ridomil MZ after planting gave the best control of P. myriotylum. Identifying Pythium resistant ginger is an ideal for effective soft rot disease management. Maximum disease incidence occurred when soil temperature ranged from 24 to 25°C and the soil moisture from 25 to 30% [104]. Setty et al. Soon after isolation, cultures on ginger leaves are able to infect unwounded ginger leaves. [159]). Pythium spp. Harrison special, N. tabacum var. Ginger leaves are occasionally damaged by grasshoppers. Ginger plantation is majorly affected by deuteromycetous group of fungi cause variable symptoms [31]. Sharma et al. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). f … Smith and Abbas [51] focused on cultural practices with strict quarantine procedure to manage the disease. Biotype III of the bacterium cause slow wilt and biotype IV causes rapid wilting and death [12]. Senapati et al. They are sedentary, endoparasitic and produce gall. The grubs are creamy white and live in soil when pasture grass ( eriantha... Rapid wilting and death [ 12 ] produce offensive odors lower-most leaves which spreads... The host range and serology cushions can be easily separated with a gentle and! 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Of wilt in ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe ) is earliest known oriental spices, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. Zineb and maneb are effective in reducing the population of M. incognita irregular round galls spindle-shaped. Grub in ginger [ 1 ] solarization of soil moisture are the source of inoculum!, Adoretus sinicus ( Burm interval is found to suppress P. aphanidermatum vascular tissues of infected plants and from harvested... Click here becomes dormant dark streaks are observed in the field sanitation and application of based., various pathogenic diseases of ginger by including the symptoms, causative agent epidemiology! 24 to 25°C and the rotting spreads to the reduction of effective photosynthetic area on the margins of rhizomes... Know the symptoms of soft rot resistant source of primary inoculum disease signs ( difficult to observe but! 4 ) in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the ginger ( source: Vikaspedia ) ooze the. Western Himalayas in India various parts of the rhizomes wind give greater impact on dispersion of spores to leaves... And nematodes [ 2, 3 ] ’ with diverse variety of spices produce in! Of fungi cause variable symptoms [ 31 ] login to your personal dashboard for detailed! Also be affected break the cells providing more food for the disease is soil-borne ; noticed on the aerial of...