1. Weeds can be categorized according to their life cycle, or how long they live: annual, biennial, and perennial (Table 12.1). The percentage from the ash taken was calculated by Trends in Applied Science and Research. Official method 950.02.Sydney, Williams, Arlington, USA, 2005. Weeds are unwanted plants in human controlled settings and as such have no value. 0 Nikita V, Tayade DT, Rahimullah SU. Chondrilla juncea. Twelve plant families include 68% of the 200 species that are the most important world weeds (Holm, 1978). Efforts to control it through manual, mechanical, chemical and biological means have met with little success. The ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 thus obtained was boiled with excess of 60% NaOH solution (11-16 ml) to liberate NH3 gas which was passed through in a conical flask containing 10 ml of 2 % H3BO3 solution until 20-40 ml of distillate was collected (about 15 minutes). Man and, The low and erratic precipitation of desert habitats and the resultant drought have been a huge environmental challenge to the desert flora. Anahtar Kelimeler: Çayır-mera, zehirli bitki, hayvan kayıpları, kayıp önleme. 2012; 1(2):14-15. 10. However in the correct and controlled location they can be beneficial and do have economic value. In the light of myriads of deleterious effects and benefits accompanying weeds, it is suggested that more studies should be carried out on weed control and weed management. Catharanthus roseus is administered as a cooling medicine. Human Biology and Health. Several studies have been carried out on the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds on leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus but a little work has been reported about proximate and mineral analysis of the leaves, stem and root of the plant. Englewood, New Jersey, USA. 4. Economic Importance of Weeds Weeds have certain effects in agriculture, which are mostly in the form of different harmful results but somehow there are also some beneficial effects. The samples were repeated with sodium (Na) standard and the place of the K filter. 0000028259 00000 n Beckett AA, Stenlake JB. In the recent years plant pathogens have become a good biological agent in Weed Life Cycles Annual Weeds An annual is a plant which germinates, flowers, sets seed, and dies within a single year. The highest biomass of the cover crop was observed 12 weeks after harvest (WAH) when the oilseed radish was sown one week after harvest (1 WAH) (2015) and five weeks before harvest (5 WBH) (2016). In central and South America, it was used as a homemade cold remedy to ease lung congestion and inflammation. 0000022166 00000 n The name is derived from the fact that it has a natural fibrous structure. Mishra P, Uniyal GC, Sharma S, Kumar S. Pattern of diversity for morphological and alkaloid yield related traits among the periwinkle Catharanthus roseus accessions collected from in and around Indian Subcontinent. The leaves of C. roseus had higher moisture content (70.50±0.23), Organic content (90.63±0.30), nitrogen content (1.30±0.01), protein content (8.08±0.07), ether extract (0.07±0.09) and carbohydrate (81.21±0.30). 23. oleiformis Pers.) It is expected that understanding the response of plants to increasing drought would be important in the light of global and regional climate changes, not only to forecast population dynamics in natural ecosystems but also to adjust management processes in agronomy and vegetation management for improvement. 3. 2. Ebonyi State, Nigeria 3 Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria 4 Department of Biological Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odimegwu Ojukwu University, Uli Anambra State, Nigeria 5 Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria In the intestinal tract, fiber resists being broken down by enzymes, although part of it may be metabolized by bacteria in the lower gut. Annual plants complete their life cycle (from seed to No differences of fertilization were observed concerning oilseed radish and weed biomass in 2015, whereby increased biomass was found after fertilization in 2016. Agriculture Systems. As weed science develops into a more mature science, it is assured a place among the most important areas of agriculture. (.��8&F�I�Lj���v��Q3?R�������9�;�{O=�6c�2;$(l�G@|z�"�R�T���%�ƒ(K}�_w�ZҜ,���&N�vA�Y$Dvh�"g4�CrĢ)� MC���qh&�� ��P�-E(Ţ�(%!#JA�(e��hځv�}� �bT�̨�@U�աԄZQ;��n�nt�A��z����[� ���3��,ȊED����h�D�%:-�k �%*%����FG�:����p:^��=��ZOtz��N�+. The stem had higher dry matter (56.80±0.20), ash on drying (15.22±0.10) and crude fiber (2.38±0.90). Zgeneral test and Assay, USP mthod 56.1.12601 Twin Brook parkway Rockville, Maryland 20852-1790, USA, 2007. Nature of Allelopathy Commonly cited effects of allelopathy include reduced seed germination and seedling growth. This information can help practitioners find the best strategies for dealing with weeds. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. Honston, USA, 2002, 47-53. Journal of Nutrition. 38  Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Of late gall mite has shown promising against the weed . (Eds) Encyclopedia of food Science. The root had higher acid insoluble and water soluble ash (0.38±0.01), (2.38±0.01) respectively. 9. . Acid insoluble ash is an indication of silicate impurity and water soluble ash content indicates the higher soluble mineral contents in the plant. In Progress in the Chemistry of Natural Products, New York, Springer. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. They are rarely involved in commercial offshore and deep-water fishing. 0000001660 00000 n Where; W = Weight of sample analyzed AU = Absorbance of test sample AS = Absorbance of standard solution VF = Total volume of filtrate VA = Volume of filtrate analyzed C = Total volume of extract 0000016525 00000 n 0000026006 00000 n 0000000956 00000 n saponins, resinoids, oxalates, and nitrates [5]. 2.3.2 Ash Contents Ash was determined by incineration of the moisture free samples at about 600 0C (about 6 -12 hours) in a temperature controlled Muffle furnace until ash becomes almost white or grayish white in color [19]. Sci. James CS. The pulverized sample was dissolved in 100 ml of 70 % ethanol and left to stand for 24 hours using the batch method of extraction. Ogundare AO. Knowledge of life cycles is important to reducing the potential for weeds to produce viable seed or vegeta-tive structures that aid in weed dispersal (Table 12.2). 7. types of lymphoma and leukemia [9, 10]. They are made up of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen but sometime comprise of sulphur and phosphorus [28]. Analytical Chemistry of Foods.Chapman and Hall, New York: 1995, 10-57. Where; W = Weight of sample used VT = Total extract volume since 1m was siphoned into the instrument. from the exotic association of medicinal wee. in Australia. Titration for calcium alone was a repeat of the previous one with slight change 10% NaOH solution at pH 12.0 was used in place of the ammonia buffer while solchrome dark blue (calcon) was used as indicator in place of erichrome black. 0000005487 00000 n Tayade DT, Padhen SS, Wadeker AB, Waghmare SA. This concern underlies the mounting questions about the profitability, long-term efficacy, and environmental safety of the discipline’s historical focus: herbicidal management of weeds (i.e., “plants out of place”). effect of plant interaction) is the most studied, individual [15]. All these adaptations and more, play an important role in the organisms’ ability to conquer the harsh conditions of desert environments amidst the prevailing climate changes. However, due to grazing without any rules of management performed in our country for many years, vegetation of our grasslands are still far from climax, and they are consisting of plants that the animals do not want to consume, have difficulty in eating and some have toxic effects on animals. J Pharm. zet Ülkemizde 14,6 milyon ha alan kaplayan doğal çayır-meralar en önemli doğal kaynaklarımız arasında yer almaktadır. Integrated management: This involves the application of more than one method mentioned above. 25. The common methods used to manage weeds include prevention and cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical means. Weeds compete with crops for the same resources, basically water, nutrients, light and carbon dioxide. 0000030699 00000 n AOAC Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The content of each tube was mixed with equal volume of the vanado-molybdate for 15 minutes at room temperature before their absorbance was taken in Jenway electronic spectrophotometer at wavelength of 420nm. Studies on the proximate and mineral compostion of leave, Stem and Root of Catharanthus Roseus (Linn) 1 Ekwealor UK, *2 Okereke CN, 3 Ugwoke EC, 4 Ukpaka GC, 5 Nweze EA, 6 Iroka FC 1, 6 Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra State, Nigeria 2 Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. Pathogen BCA . 1961; 24(3):105-138. The percentage of crude fiber was calculated by Author KUE designed the structure of, the review. Moreover, some of them lack autotrophy and fully develop only by parasitizing crops or wild hosts. Also, to minimize the rate of transpiration, they have evolved leaf sclerophylly. All authors read and approved the final, Weeds are plants that are unwanted in a given. 35-39 Weeds, however, besides their deleterious impacts in nature, have many beneficial properties, which include, but not limited to benefits of weeds to companion plants, ethnomedical and ethnopharmaceutical uses of weeds, ethnobotanical uses of wild edible weeds, and the use of weeds as feed for livestock. Weed scientists will be faced with an ever changing landscape of problems to undertake. The concentration of the test mineral in the sample was calculated and obtained as follows: 4. Published by UC Cooperative Extension, aquatic weeds: Summary of a survey of, the literature on the economic impact of. �� �v�8�D@ld S�p�(w����4 -��`���ZJ�n�M�z��*��_���]?��ܬ�z�$/�/�Q}�gJ���U�?����e��:��k��0 ��e 39  A new research focus should perhaps be on possible industrial and pharmaceutical uses. (Dodd, 1940). 344 33 e 5; May 2016; Page No. Lioydia. Moreover, the ecological consequences of landscape disturbance and landscape fragmentation are reviewed. Fiber is characterized by low or no nutritional value but because of its effect on the digestive system, it is thought to help with such problems in diabetes and high levels of blood cholesterol [25]. 0000024628 00000 n Anjana B, Metai S. Composition of Indian Aquatic Plants in relation to utilization as Animal forage. Maton AJ, Hopkins CW, McLaughlins S, Warner MQ, Wright JD. Fransworth NR. 2.3.3 Acid insoluble Ash Acid insoluble ash was determined by boiling the ash sample of leaves and flowers of C. roseus with 25 ml 3N HCl for 5 minutes and collecting the insoluble matter [20].   European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience  Improves lung capacity. ŠA plant growing out of place, that is a plant growing where it is not wanted, is common, accepted explanation of what a weed is. Thereafter, starting with least concentration i. e. 2 ppm, all the standard solutions were sucked into the instrument and caused to spray over the non-luminous flame. Desert plants have adopted some strategies like, The weed suppressive ability of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. The importance of fisheries and aquaculture to development 355 and canoes, and collecting seaweed, bivalves, molluscs and pearls. 0000022986 00000 n 0000023786 00000 n They are responsible for substantial losses of farm production and extensive damage to the environment. 2001; 48:273-286. Today, according to world health organization (WHO) as many as 80% of the world’s people depend on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs [2]. Asakawa Y. Weeds that are not controlled within 2-3 weeks of emergence usually affect crop yield. 31. 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